Old Man Gapus Bark Painting
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Rain on, O rain! Sleep on, O Wano! In thy grave at Tirau, Beyond yon mountain ridge, Where the high-woods shade our olden home. Yonder my chieftain parent sleeps, He rests in the dark burial cave Return, my soul, to the soft soothing waters, The great plashing hot-springs of Tokaanu, The pools wherein my kinsfolk laved their limbs. The people that I love.
Old Mihi had been left behind by the garrison when they took to their canoes and crossed to Tikitiki Pa, on the opposite side of the narrow strait leading up to the Mokau arm of the lake. She had been a sentry for the garrison, and had been left to keep watch outside the village. She gave expression to her feelings of pouritanga sorrow and dejection in this song, which she composed while crouched in the forest close to the pa when her companions abandoned her. It is often sung to this day by members of the Ngati-Ruapani and Urewera.
Engari te titi E tangi haere ana-e! Whai tokorua rawarawa-e! Tenei ko au nei, E manu-e! Kai te hua-kiwi Mahue i te tawai Ka toru te rakau kai runga. Whakangaro ana nga hiwi-maunga Ki Huiarau. Kia ringia ki te roimata-e! Kei te rere au Ki Ohinemutu ra-e! Ko au anake mahue iho-e! Whakatika rawa ake ki runga ra, Ka momotu ki tawhiti. Ma wai ra e whai atu, i—a! No sound, no cry But the titi-birds, Calling through the dark, Crying as they go! Three forest trees above my head. Fast fall my tears; Would I could fly To Ohinemutu, far, far away.
Ah me! The long war-canoes, Paparata and Whawhakia, are foaming along almost bow and bow in the last half-mile of a great race on the Waikato River, near Mercer. Seventy paddles are going, flashing for a moment in the sun and dipping and glistening again. In each canoe a kai-hautu , the captain and time-giver, is standing amidships, waving his shining whalebone or stone mere on this side and on that, and raising his voice in songs and barking exhortations to his toiling crew.
E pari ra ko e te tai, Whakaki ana mai Nga ngutu-awa. Hui nga ope au Ki te tai uru. Koia hoki. Aue, ku-umea! Flowing there is the ocean tide, Surging towards me, Filling up the mouth of the river. Gathering are the armies At the sea of the west. Now dip the paddles! Come along! Harder, hasten, O Waikato! Oh, a long, strong stroke! Now quickly, quickly! Quicker, Waikato! Pull away O! Paddling like furies, bending nearly double over their blades, splashing the water over each other, the crews surge up to the finishing mark. A rifle cracks; the race is won by a nose.
This chant is an example of a class of song called mata , a supernatural vision, a prophecy chanted by a priest. The seer was Kukurarangi, of the Atiawa tribe. Standing forth on the marae before the assembled warriors, the tohunga chanted:—. He aha te hau e pa mai nei? He uru, he tonga, he parara. Ko nga hau tangi rua—e! Below there! Tukitukia ha! Rerea ha! Kopekopea ha! Taku pokai tarapunga Fly through the seas!
E tu ki te muriwai ki Waipara ra— Hi—ha! Ka whakapae te riri ki tua, ho—o—o! What wind is this that blows upon me? The West? The South? By the bow of the canoe, by the handle of the paddle, The Canoe of Maui shall be overturned Then paddle fiercely! Deeply plunge your paddles! See my flock of seabirds In the quiet waters of Waipara! Beyond that spot will rage the fight! This little song, the Maori idea of the duet of a pair of tui , the male and female birds, was recited by Mere Ngamai o Te Wharepouri, the venerable lady of Ngati-Awa, Taranaki, who gave me much other poetic lore of her people.
The two birds, said she, are sitting on a bough of a tree, the tane and the wahine , and this is their musical dialogue. The tane says to his bird-wife:. These words describe the gentle, soothing sound of the birds as they flit on softly winnowing wings to and fro, and their movements in shaking their plumage free of the moisture in the foliage. The male bird nods his head repeatedly as he utters these words and shakes his white throat-tassel.
Ko au, ko au; Tui pai, huruhuru maeneene. Ko terepu, terewai. The pair flap their wings and they rise and fly away to the fork of a tree near by, where the kiekie plant grows in great bunches, with ripe tirori fruit patangatanga , usually called the tawhara , which is the name of the flower. The birds feast on the tirori fruit, and then the tane utters this in a flute-like note, prolonged to a whistle:.
A song of greeting to the riroriro the grey warbler , whose trilling in the thickets and on the bush edge is a sign that summer is beginning. The Maori loves to hear this little bird. Tangi e te riroriro, Te tohu o te raumati; Tua rua tonu mai; Tikina mai tirohia, Tenei ano ahau Te au reti mai nei, O te kawe mai A puna-roimata, Te aroha whitiora, Kia ora te kaupapa i au. Sweetly sings the riroriro, Chant of summer days; Sing it over again to me; Come forth that I may see thee. My ears ensnare thy melody The chant that brings the gushing tears Of joy and love, The song that cheers The very heart of me.
This composition, which was sung as a war-dance and haka chant, is of historical interest as an expression of the intense national fervour and anti- pakeha determination which possessed many of the Maori tribes during the Fifties and Sixties of last century. The chant was sung with frenzied enthusiasm at the great gathering of tribes at Manawapou, on the Taranaki coast, in , when the Land League was founded for the purpose of preventing further sales of native land to the Government. E kore Taranaki e makere atu, E kore Taranaki e makere atu!
Tika tonu mai Kia Piata-kai-manawa, I Piata-kai-manawa. Ka turu, ko te whakamutunga.
TEKNIK SIPIL: kunci jawaban buku look ahead 3 erlangga
E kapeti, kapeti, E-i-e! Kapeti te wai o te paraheka; E ko te pakurutanga iho Ki runga ki te kahaka; Tungou kau te ure O Piata-kai manawa— Ka turu! In this haka or hanihani chant, which was sung by many hundreds of voices on the marae at Manawapou, the people declared that the lands of Taranaki should not be lost or abandoned to the white man, that the ancestral territory should not be loosened and endangered by alienation of portions of it.
This cry of resolution to hold the land was followed by a challenge to the pakeha , in symbolical language. All the efforts of the foes of the Maori would be futile. The challenge to the English was couched in Rabelaisian terms that added to its vigour and fierceness. Tokatoka is a sharp-topped volcanic peak rising above the eastern bank of the Northern Wairoa River. It has a story and a song, that fantastic peak, lifting like a huge marlinspike above the woods and farms. This is the tribal warsong of the Ngati-Whatua and Te Roroa, the thundering ngeri of the river-dwellers, enjoining the warriors to be as firm as the great rock Tokatoka, which they regarded as a type of their clan and country:—.
Ko te Puru-e! Ko te Puru, Ko te Puru ki Tokatoka! Kia ueue; E kore te riri E tae mai Ki roto o Kaipara. Kia toa! Te riri! Put forth your strength! O tribe, be brave! This battle song, the slogan of the Wairoa men, was chanted, said Te Rore, on the eve of an engagement, in particular before the fight of Te Moremonui, where Taoho and his braves defeated an army of Ngapuhi under Pokaia, Hongi Hika and other great warriors. The old man Kiharoa, chief of the Ngati-Whakaue, recited the poem to me as we sat on Pukeroa hill, overlooking Rotorua lake, one day in Haha rawa te hau E pupuhi mai nei?
These suggestions were not carried out. Individuals sent quotations to Oxford, but no organisation was established to make the collection systematic or complete, and at the next meeting of the Association the Section had ceased to exist, or at least had doffed its literary character. At a somewhat later date, Messrs. Funk and Wagnall of New York invited me to join an "Advisory Committee on disputed spelling and pronunciation.
Subsequently, at my own suggestion, the firm appointed me to take charge of the Australian terms in their Dictionary, and I forwarded a certain number of words and phrases in use in Australia. But the accident of the letter A, for Australian, coming early in the alphabet gives my name a higher place than it deserves on the published list of those co-operating in the production of this Standard Dictionary ; for with my present knowledge I see that my contribution was lamentably incomplete.
Moreover, I joined the Editorial Corps too late to be of real use. Only the final proofs were sent to me, and although my corrections were reported to New York without delay, they arrived too late for any alterations to be effected before the sheets went to press. This took the heart out of my work for that Dictionary. For its modernness, for many of its lexicographical features, and for its splendid illustrations, I entertain a cordial admiration for the book, and I greatly regret the unworthiness of my share in it. It is quite evident that others had contributed Australasian words, and I must confess I hardly like to be held responsible for some of their statements.
For instance I have never heard of it, and my ignorance is shared by the greatest Australian botanist, the Baron von Mueller. The Zebra grass-parrakeet of Australia. From F. See BEAU n. As a matter of fact, the name is altered out of recognition, but really comes from the aboriginal budgery , good, and gar , parrot. A large New Zealand tree.
Legends of the Maori
I can find no trace of the spelling "Imou. The New Zealand Herald made answer--"He may be sure that the good American dictionary has made a misprint. It was scarcely worth the Professor's while to take notice of mere examples of pakeha ignorance of Maori. These examples, I know, are not fair specimens of the accuracy of the Standard Dictionary, but they serve as indications of the necessity for a special book on Australasian English. In the present day, when words are more and more abbreviated, a "short title" may be counted necessary to the welfare of a book.
For this reason "Austral English" has been selected. In its right place in the dictionary the word Austral will be found with illustrations to show that its primary meaning, "southern," is being more and more limited, so that the word may now be used as equivalent to Australasian. Hasty inference might lead to the remark that such addition is only slang, but the remark is far from being accurate; probably not one-tenth of the new vocabulary could fairly be so classified. A great deal of slang is used in Australasia, but very much less is generated here than is usually believed.
In a literary policeman in Melbourne brought out a small Australian Slang Dictionary. In spite of the name, however, the compiler confesses that "very few of the terms it contains have been invented by Australians. The phrase "Australasian English" includes something much wider than slang. Those who, speaking the tongue of Shakspeare, of Milton, and of Dr.
Johnson, came to various parts of Australasia, found a Flora and a Fauna waiting to be named in English. New birds, beasts and fishes, new trees, bushes and flowers, had to receive names for general use. It is probably not too much to say that there never was an instance in history when so many new names were needed, and that there never will be such an occasion again, for never did settlers come, nor can they ever again come, upon Flora and Fauna so completely different from anything seen by them before.
When the offshoots of our race first began to settle in America, they found much that was new, but they were still in the same North Temperate zone. Though there is now a considerable divergence between the American and the English vocabulary, especially in technical terms, it is not largely due to great differences in natural history.
An oak in America is still a Quercus , not as in Australia a Casuarina. But with the whole tropical region intervening it was to be expected that in the South Temperate Zone many things would be different, and such expectation was amply fulfilled.
In early descriptions of Australia it is a sort of commonplace to dwell on this complete variety, to harp on the trees that shed bark not leaves, and the cherries with the stones outside. Since the days when "Adam gave names to all cattle and to the fowl of the air and to every beast of the field" never were so many new names called for.
Unfortunately, names were not given by the best educated in the community, but often by those least qualified to invent satisfactory names: not by a linguist, a botanist, an ornithologist, an ichthyologist, but by the ordinary settler. Even in countries of old civilisation names are frequently conferred or new words invented, at times with good and at times with unsatisfactory results, by the average man, whom it is the modern fashion to call "the man in the street.
Givers of new names may be benefactors to their language or violators of its purity and simplicity, but in either case they are nearly always, like the burial-place of Moses, unknown. Of Australasian additions to the English language there are two main sources, which correspond to the twofold division of them into new words and new uses of old words.
The commoner origin of Australasian English words is the turning and twisting of an already existing English name. The settler saw a fruit somewhat like a cherry. Though he knew well that it was not a cherry, he christened it the "native cherry. Native bear, native cherry, may teach the young Australian that the bear and the cherry so named are not as the bear of the Arctic Regions or the cherry of Europe.
But in the British Museum the label does not help much. The settler heard a bird laugh in what he thought an extremely ridiculous manner, its opening notes suggesting a donkey's bray--he called it the "laughing jackass. The settler must have had an imagination. Whip-bird, or Coach-whip, from the sound of the note, Lyre-bird from the appearance of the outspread tail, are admirable names. Another class of name brought the Australian word nearer to its English use. Bird-names, fish-names, plant-names, are sometimes transferred to new species, sometimes to a new genus, sometimes to an entirely different Natural Order, bearing a resemblance to the original, either real or fancied, as for instance "Magpie.
Many of the new Australasian words are taken from the languages of the aborigines, often with considerable alteration due to misunderstanding. Such words are either Australian or Maori. Whilst in New Zealand careful attention has been paid by competent scholars to the musical Maori language, it can hardly be claimed that the Australian family of languages has ever been scientifically studied, though there is a heap of printed material--small grammars and lists of words-- rudis indigestaque moles.
There is no doubt that the vocabularies used in different parts of Australia and Tasmania varied greatly, and equally little doubt that the languages, in structure and perhaps originally in vocabulary, were more or less connected. About the year , Professor Sayce, of Oxford, wrote a letter, which was published in The Argus , pointing out the obligation that lay upon the Australian colonies to make a scientific study of a vanishing speech.
The duty would be stronger were it not for the distressing lack of pence that now is vexing public men. Probably a sum of L a year would suffice for an educated inquirer, but his full time for several years would be needed. Such an one should be trained at the University as a linguist and an observer, paying especial attention to logic and to Comparative Philology. Whilst the colonies neglect their opportunities, and Sibylla year by year withdraws her offer, perhaps "the inevitable German" will intervene, and in a well-arranged book bring order out of the chaos of vocabularies and small pamphlets on the subject, all that we have to trust to now.
The need of scientific accuracy is strong.
For the purposes of this Dictionary I have been investigating the origin of words, more or less naturalised as English, that come from aboriginal Australian, in number between seventy and a hundred. I have received a great deal of kind assistance, many people taking much trouble to inform me. But there is a manifest lack of knowledge. Many supplied me with the meanings of the words as used in English, but though my appeal was scattered far and wide over Australia chiefly through the kindness of the newspapers , few could really give the origin of the words.
Two amongst the best informed went so far as to say that Australian words have no derivation. That doctrine is hard to accept. A word of three syllables does not spring complete from the brain of an aboriginal as Athene rose fully armed from the head of Zeus. It is beyond all doubt that the vocabularies of the Aborigines differed widely in different parts.
Frequently, the English have carried a word known in one district to a district where it was not known, the aboriginals regarding the word as pure English. In several books statements will be found that such and such a word is not Aboriginal, when it really has an aboriginal source but in a different part of the Continent. Threlkeld, in his Australian Grammar , which is especially concerned with the language of the Hunter River, gives a list of "barbarisms," words that he considers do not belong to the aboriginal tongue.
He says with perfect truth-"Barbarisms have crept into use, introduced by sailors, stockmen, and others, in the use of which both blacks and whites labour under the mistaken idea, that each one is conversing in the other's language. Threlkeld is not the only writer who will not acknowledge as aboriginal sundry words with an undoubted Australian pedigree.
The Maori language, the Italian of the South, has received very different treatment from that meted out by fate and indifference to the aboriginal tongues of Australia. It has been studied by competent scholars, and its grammar has been comprehensively arranged and stated. A Maori Dictionary, compiled more than fifty years ago by a missionary, afterwards a bishop, has been issued in a fourth edition by his son, who is now a bishop.
Yet, of Maori also, the same thing is said with respect to etymology. A Maori scholar told me that, when he began the study many years ago, he was warned by a very distinguished scholar not to seek for derivations, as the search was full of pitfalls. It was not maintained that words sprang up without an origin, but that the true origin of most of the words was now lost. In spite of this double warning, it may be maintained that some of the origins both of Maori and of Australian words have been found and are in this book recorded. The pronunciation of Maori words differs so widely from that of Australian aboriginal names that it seems advisable to insert a note on the subject.
Australian aboriginal words have been written down on no system, and very much at hap-hazard. English people have attempted to express the native sounds phonetically according to English pronunciation. No definite rule has been observed, different persons giving totally different values to represent the consonant and vowel sounds.
In a language with a spelling so unphonetic as the English, in which the vowels especially have such uncertain and variable values, the results of this want of system have necessarily been very unsatisfactory and often grotesque. Maori words, on the other hand, have been written down on a simple and consistent system, adopted by the missionaries for the purpose of the translation of the Bible.
This system consists in giving the Italian sound to the vowels, every letter--vowel and consonant--having a fixed and invariable value. Maori words are often very melodious. In pronunciation the best rule is to pronounce each syllable with a nearly equal accent. Care has been taken to remember that this is an Australasian English and not a Maori Dictionary; therefore to exclude words that have not passed into the speech of the settlers.
But in New Zealand Maori is much more widely used in the matter of vocabulary than the speech of the aborigines is in Australia, or at any rate in the more settled parts of Australia; and the Maori is in a purer form. Though some words and names have been ridiculously corrupted, the language of those who dwell in the bush in New Zealand can hardly be called Pigeon English , and that is the right name for the "lingo" used in Queensland and Western Australia, which, only partly represented in this book, is indeed a falling away from the language of Bacon and Shakspeare.
Yule and Mr. Burnell as a name for their interesting Dictionary of Anglo-Indian words. The law is well recognised, though it has lacked the name, such as I now venture to give it.
When a word comes from a foreign language, those who use it, not understanding it properly, give a twist to the word or to some part of it from the hospitable desire to make the word at home in its new quarters, no regard, however, being paid to the sense. The most familiar instance in English is crayfish from the French ecrevisse , though it is well known that a crayfish is not a fish at all.
Amongst the Mohammedans in India there is a festival at which the names of "Hassan" and "Hosein" are frequently called out by devotees. Tommy Atkins, to whom the names were naught, converted them into "Hobson, Jobson. It has no connection with pigeon, the bird, but is an Oriental's attempt to pronounce the word "business. It may be thought by some precisians that all Australasian English is a corruption of the language.
So too is Anglo-Indian, and, pace Mr. Brander Matthews, there are such things as Americanisms, which were not part of the Elizabethan heritage, though it is perfectly true that many of the American phrases most railed at are pure old English, preserved in the States, though obsolete in Modern England; for the Americans, as Lowell says, "could not take with them any better language than that of Shakspeare. For it was not the classical Latin that is the origin of French, but the language of the soldiers and the camp-followers who talked slang and picked words up from every quarter.
English has certainly a richer vocabulary, a finer variety of words to express delicate distinctions of meaning, than any language that is or that ever was spoken: and this is because it has always been hospitable in the reception of new words. It is too late a day to close the doors against new words. This Austral English Dictionary merely catalogues and records those which at certain doors have already come in.
With certain exceptions, this Dictionary is built up, as a Dictionary should be, on quotations, and these are very copious. It may even be thought that their number is too large. It is certainly larger, and in some places the quotations themselves are much longer, than could ever be expected in a general Dictionary of the English Language.