Survival Shotgun--Chapter III-4 Shotgun Circumstance (Survival Guns)
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PubMed Google Scholar. Institute of Medicine and National Research Council.
National Research Council. Firearms and Violence: A Critical Review. Patterns in Criminal Homicide. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press; The medium is the message: firearm caliber as a determinant of death from assault. J Legal Stud. J Clin Epidemiol. Estimating predicted probabilities from logistic regression: different methods correspond to different target populations.
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Please allow up to 2 business days for review, approval, and posting. With 14, homicides annually from guns, further information on these injuries that might decrease the toll of gun violence is critically important. While the exact location of the GSW is critically important, this study shows that overall the caliber of the bullet also greatly matters. James Cawood, Ph. Factor One, Inc. Interesting work. It struck me that since the analysis showed that the fatal cases in this sample involved roughly twice as many wounds on average as the non-fatal cases, the likely additional traumatic and ballistic effects e.
Douglas Goar, PhD Retired. The 7. This error is a flaw in the validity of your study. It should also be noted that the 7. It has a much higher muzzle velocity, generally 2 to 3 time that of handgun rounds. Lethality of a round for the most part must include the caliber and muzzle velocity and then remaining energy at distance to the intended target.
For example, the Fort Hood shooter used a FN 5. The lethality of that attack is well documented. Definitions of "Caliber" and Firearm Type Problematic. Dave A. Olsen None. It appears the authors are trying to get at some measure of overall measure of a cartridge to determine lethality. They conflate caliber diameter of the projectile , powder charge, type of gun action revolver vs semi auto and other things.
For example, a. Same with. The study does not mention the type of projectile, design, weight, material, shape, and other factors that any hunter would know has a bearing on effectiveness for different uses. So, you could arrange the data to show other outcomes. The smaller 9mm is more lethal than. Revolvers are more lethal than semi automatics depending on what action the. AR15 rifles and their most common cartridge using a. And this only scratches the surface of ballistics, retained energy, sectional density, bullet construction, weight of the gun and its effects on precision, sights, etc.
Also not mentioned was the number of homicides prevented by the use of firearms by potential victims. Does unholstering a. Adam Peterson None. The power of the cartridge has a dramatic effect on the accuracy of the firearm. It is much much harder to place an accurate follow-up shot with a more powerful handgun. Clearly a hit with a powerful bullet will be more deadly than a hit with a weaker one, however you can make more hits with a weaker bullet. The data on the number of shots taken compared to hits isn't as available or as accurate as the data on number and placement of wounds but one currently has an effect on the other and that should have been explored.
John Santry, B. Law Enforcement. The notion that caliber plays a roll in terminal ballistics has been known for decades. For example, the FBI has known since the late s that bullet performance is critical to stopping a threat. These were lessons learned following the disastrous Miami shootout, and these costly lessons are why American law enforcement officers don't carry.
Although, according to the FBI, within the common law enforcement calibers 9mm, 40 Auto, 45 Auto , the most critical factor is penetration, not necessarily bullet diameter. Of course, success in the law enforcement world is measured in stopping a threat, not death. The problem here is that small calibers and - by the way - I disagree with how calibers were categorized in this study do not STOP as well as larger calibers due to a number of factors including the common lack of adequate penetration by small caliber projectiles.
I also wish the study included a specific breakdown of wound location by caliber since location is such a critical factor. The element of time is also missing. In other words, how long did it take for first responders to arrive? How long was it before the victim arrived at a trauma center? How much time elapsed between the wound and death? These are all critical questions.
The notion that there is any more meaning than that is just silly. Finally - although it was probably statistically insignificant - why on earth did the study include 7. By dint of age, criminal record, and engagement in a criminal enterprise, most, perhaps all, cannot legally own firearms. Consequently, most of these individuals have very little firearms training and experience. Police tend to frequent gun ranges and there is a paucity of public lands around Boston where shooting is legal.
Thus, other variables such as bullet caliber come to the fore. An old saw among sportsmen is that "Guns don't kill people, proper stance, grip, aim, trigger pull, and follow-through kill people". That is, training counts. Allegedly, gangs on, e. Such material differences in training may account for much of the variability of the data. Prior to medical school, I served five years as an infantry officer in the United States Army, service that included a deployment to eastern Baghdad in as a Reconnaissance Platoon Leader.
Therefore, I imagine I am one of the few physicians who has seen the tragic impact of firearm injuries in our emergency rooms and medical wards, but who has also used a firearm to take the life of another human being in combat. Those seemingly antithetical experiences, rather than any formal research, inform my comments below. First, allow me to commend the authors and the editors for tackling such an urgent, yet divisive issue. My concern is that some aspects of this article, especially reference to the very different types of firearms studied, could exacerbate, rather than bridge that divide.
A tactic where the shooter s often leave the area when the job is done. The take away here is that mass shootings are usually specifically targeted at a group. Occasionally it's two groups shooting at each other. If you're not in that group you're not a target. You might get shot if you hang around, but do you really have a reason to hang around?
Active shootings are defined by the Dept of Homeland Security as, " First, the time issue. Notice the 'ing' suffix in the definition. Basically after an active shooting event is done, then it technically becomes a mass shooting. This is another reason why people can play fast and loose with the definition of mass shootings. A mass shooting is usually a crime scene. Active shootings are when there's lead in the air. That distinction is really important when you're there and it's happening. Second the way the term is used implies an active shooter is shooting at everyone.
These are spree killers and terrorists. If the shooter sees movement, he's shooting at it. Using these standards, active shootings are actually much rarer than mass shootings. Yes, they are often ideologically driven, but more common is mental health issues and stress. Contrary to what you've been lead to believe most people with mental issues alone are not violent.
This is the classic shooting at strangers. Stop, reread that. It's important. Very seldom does the shooter survive. It's very rare to see an active shooter in handcuffs. Now whether the active shooter ends up being taken down by someone else or -- having no more targets -- shoots himself depends. Ideologically driven shooters are usually taken down. Mentally imbalanced spree killers often suicide when they run out of targets or encounter resistance.
Any way you look at it, it almost always ends with a bullet. It is however an important factor. Who's the intended target? Is it you? Is it someone else? Here's why that's important: With targeted attacks the bullets tend to be going in one direction, towards the target. A targeted attack doesn't have to injure or kill multiples. But it can—especially if the target is a group. Think of the Pulse Night Club shooting. But that's way more rare than people think. Most targeted attacks are against an individual.
Unfortunately, 1- They often happen out in public. A targeted attack against an individual that results in multiple victims can be the result of strategy e. A third possibility is the target runs. This turns a line of fire into an arc of fire that you don't want to be in.
That is why more than just the target is at risk of getting shot. In the gang parlance of the '90s innocent people who caught stray bullets were known as 'Mushrooms. The reason they were shot is basically proximity to the target and bad aim. It really sucks when two individuals are shooting at each other and behind both are getting hit. Knowing these distinctions are very important for coming up with the right answer when there's lead in the air. Starting with the most important question of them all. Is he specifically shooting at you? Because if he is, that's a whole new level of ugly.
Rather than try to tell you all about how much violence I've been in, I'll tell you the last time I was shot at was 22 years ago.
That's a new record for me. In my entire adult life I'm 58 I have never gone that long in between shooting incidents. I was 14 the first time I was shot at. I tended to average between two to five years between incidents. And that doesn't count the times I was in the area when lead was in the air, but aimed at someone else. What you may not realize about this is I developed a distaste for people who get slapped around and then turn around claim the person was trying to kill them. Been there, done that NOT the same.
Not even in the same ballpark. But man will they tell you all about their trauma drama from the experience, that they're survivors, and how dangerous it was. To combat this hyperbole, I came up with a list of the six most common results when someone IS trying to kill you. They are: 1 You die 2 You spend a long time in the hospital 3 Someone runs away usually you 4 You shoot back often prompting the other person to retreat 5 You retaliate with such ferocity the other person is injured, killed or runs away 6 Someone else intervenes resulting in some combination of In a similar vein, just because someone is waving a gun, that isn't the same as them shooting.
And— in a bit you'll see why this is important— just because you're in an area where someone is shooting doesn't necessarily mean they're shooting at you specifically. If there's a gun spitting lead, it's safe to assume the person is trying to kill. The question is "Who? The importance of that is simple: People who are trying to kill someone else don't really care about you unless you get in their way. Someone who is trying to kill you specifically will be more dedicated to that task than someone intent on killing someone else or anybody in the area.
This strongly effects what your options are. That is why you must look at what happens before it becomes physical -- even with weapons. Because what is going on before the weapon is drawn and what occurs while the weapon is displayed is critical for assessing what is the best course of action for you. A threat display or the different kinds of violence are NOT someone trying to kill you!
Can they escalate into physical violence? Can it go from a simple assault to an aggravated assault? Can they result in death? Yes Especially if you try to counter a weapon-based threat display with one of your own. Can you catch a bullet meant for someone else? Oh hell, yes. However most violence is NOT about killing. It is about achieving a goal. And this includes someone displaying or brandishing of a weapon. The 'reason' to brandish is so that person doesn't have to use it.
Although 'brandishing' is illegal in most states, the intent is usually to show how serious someone is about their demands. If the goal is to kill, he or she will just pull it and start putting lead in the air. I often say that 'I am negotiating until I pull the trigger. While it is possible that the shooter is working his way up to shooting by talking, it is far more common that he is communicating so he doesn't 'have' to shoot. But, people caught up in their emotions about being in conflict don't look at it this way. While this may sound obvious, the problem is that in conflict , when people are functioning in their Monkey they are NOT making rational decisions given the danger.
That's what we call the parts of your brain that control our social and emotional behaviors and 'thinking.
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In a life-and-death crisis? Not so much. Included in the list of not intelligent decisions if you're not directly involved, but think you're watching it on TV. I'm not joking that I've seen people stand there and watch when someone is waving a gun and screaming at someone else. Or think that getting your phone out and filming is a good idea.
Again, I've seen it happen.
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Lookie loos are more common than ' freezing. In conflict, the monkey brain is more concerned about emotions, feelings, pride, status and, most of all, winning than anything else. As such, when someone is threatening you with a weapon, the monkey brain is famous for saying things like "You don't have the guts. Shoot us? Or to be more accurate, that was her monkey brain trying show that person with a gun that she was really upset and not afraid of him or his little gun.
Not to put too fine of a point on it, but the monkey brain is great at getting you into danger, but it sucks at getting you out of it. By danger we mean physical danger , not conflict. Not your monkey fear of losing status, getting your feelings hurt or humiliated. It's usually your monkey brain that gets you into conflict, drives the conflict -- and this is the weird part -- both tells you you are in danger and at the same time ignores the actual danger.
On one level social and self-esteem the Monkey will convince you this is Armageddon. At the same time it will keep you yelling and screaming at someone Functionally, you have floated from where the perceived 'dangers' are to emotions, status and your pride to a point where there is physical danger. The problem is the Monkey is more concerned with its fears to these other issues.
It's as though it's saying: Sure there's some physical danger, but that's not nearly as important as showing this other monkey I'm right. In fact, it is not uncommon for the Monkey to view a brandished weapon as a bluff. A bluff that the Monkey feels it must call if it is to 'win. We cannot stress enough that the smart course of action is do to everything in your power to keep the bullets in the gun -- even if that means swallowing pride. If you don't have experience functioning under adrenal stress Do Not Think you have this under control. Without some kind of training or experience, you may indeed freeze, but you're more likely to do something like Nicole DuFresne.
Change Bus Drivers Yes and no. We're at the point where the first trigger pull is two seconds or less away— or there is a bullet in the air already. At this junction, the first thing you need to do is kick the Monkey out of the driver's seat. When it comes to being shot at, the Monkey can be a problem in one of two ways. It's far worse when it's a combination of the two. Although that combo is all too common, we'll address them separately. First off, did you know most people don't know what gunfire actually sounds like? It doesn't sound like it does in the movies.
So the first problem is many people don't know that someone is shooting. Up to and including actually getting shot they think they were hit by a thrown object and hear a noise. So instead of immediately moving to safety they instead 'Prairie dog' — stand there looking around trying to figure out what's happening. Second, when we are in unfamiliar circumstances, the Monkey prompts us to look around and take our cues from other people. We basically do what everyone else does. While this is great at social gatherings, it's not so good when there's bullets in the air and everyone is prairie doggin'.
Third— again a very useful strategy in everyday life, but not so much in a crisis— our Monkey looks for a social solution to a problem. While this happens, you're standing still. So while the same process that helps you decide which fork to use is good at a dinner party, it will get your brains blown into a fine pink mist in a shooting situation. Fourth, some people know what shots sound like and will react immediately. If they have presence of mind they'll shout helpful hints, like "DOWN! Fifth, while it may seem like I'm making light of this people die because of this non-reaction time.
They either stand there and catch a bullet or sit in room wondering what's going on while an active shooter approaches the unlocked door. See Alain Burrese's Survive a Shooting in the right hand column. But what about the Monkey ego getting you into this mess? Important safety tip: This situation is no longer about your pride, your feelz, loss of social status, or your rights.
It's about not getting shot. That goal isn't something the Monkey is good at. Not only did it get you into this mess because of its desire to 'win,' but when someone attacks you, the Monkey tends to freeze as its gears grind. The weapons of the Monkey are words and threats. It sucks at physical fighting and it's even worse at surviving when it's pissed someone off enough to want to kill you. It not only doesn't know what to do, but it's going to keep you from doing anything too.
This is what I meant when I said you have to kick it out of the driver's seat. The Monkey's great plan is to have this other monkey groveling in abject submission and remorse for daring to challenge it or that person run screaming from you in terror. That plan has just failed miserably. When you are physically assaulted after your Monkey's plan has failed, odds are against you swinging into serious kung fu action. Most people either keep on trying to engage in monkey brain behaviors screaming and threatening OR they are overwhelmed by the assault.
It's time for the lizard brain to take over. Besides, odds are the monkey brain got you into this mess in the first place. Unlike the monkey brain, the lizard brain is not concerned with your pride, status or emotions That is what it's geared towards. And when the fecal matter is hitting the oscillating blades, that's who you want driving the bus. Two good ways to understand the different level of functioning were supplied, first by Ferran Bassols who said: The monkey brain says "I'm more important than this guy.
While the lizard brain says "DUCK! In both examples, the danger has shifted from a possibility to a reality. There is a very big difference. The problem is that modern life does not afford most the ability to drop into this part of their consciousness. It might help if you imagine bridges between the parts of your brains.
Think river or freeway crossings in the city. That means they can easily slip into their monkey brain 1. However, the 'bridge' to their lizard brain is one of those rope and slat bridges you see in jungle action movies. Or, if you're more urban in your thinking, the lizard brain is considered a bad part of town and most people have only one bridge to it. They don't spend much time there or know how to get there. Once you drop into your lizard brain, you are no longer concerned with monkey brain issues.
Those are now officially, out the window. There are no more instructions about what to do to avoid violence, there is no more threat of violence; the bullets are flying. BTW, there is some argument that freezing is the result of a person being incapable of allowing their lizard brain access to the steering wheel. Rory Miller and I have a discussion on the possible causes of freezing and how to overcome it.
When there are bullets in the air, you need to be acting , not worrying about how you feel. When Someone Is Shooting Well the first question is he shooting at YOU specifically? Then is he specifically shooting at someone else? Ruff's book was published during a period of rampant inflation in the wake of the oil crisis. Most of the elements of survivalism can be found there, including advice on food storage. The book championed the claim that precious metals, such as gold and silver , have an intrinsic worth that makes them more usable in the event of a socioeconomic collapse than fiat currency.
Ruff later published milder variations of the same themes, such as How to Prosper During the Coming Bad Years , a best-seller in Firearms instructor and survivalist Colonel Jeff Cooper wrote on hardening retreats against small arms fire. Letter April , Cooper suggested using the " Vauban Principle", whereby projecting bastion corners would prevent miscreants from being able to approach a retreat's exterior walls in any blind spots. Rawles is a proponent of including a mantrap foyer at survival retreats, an architectural element that he calls a "crushroom".
Bruce D. Clayton and Joel Skousen have both written extensively on integrating fallout shelters into retreat homes, but they put less emphasis on ballistic protection and exterior perimeter security than Cooper and Rawles. Other newsletters and books followed in the wake of Ruff's first publication. In , Kurt Saxon began publishing a monthly tabloid-size newsletter called The Survivor , which combined Saxon's editorials with reprints of 19th century and early 20th century writings on various pioneer skills and old technologies.
Kurt Saxon used the term survivalist to describe the movement, and he claims to have coined the term. In the previous decade, preparedness consultant, survival bookseller, and California-based author Don Stephens popularized the term retreater to describe those in the movement, referring to preparations to leave cities for remote havens or survival retreats should society break down. For a time in the s, the terms survivalist and retreater were used interchangeably.
While the term retreater eventually fell into disuse, many who subscribed to it saw retreating as the more rational approach to conflict-avoidance and remote "invisibility". Survivalism , on the other hand, tended to take on a more media-sensationalized, combative, "shoot-it-out-with-the-looters" image. One newsletter deemed by some to be one of the most important on survivalism and survivalist retreats in the s was the Personal Survival "P.
Clayton , Nancy Mack Tappan , J. Cobb author of Bad Times Primer. The majority of the newsletter revolved around selecting, constructing, and logistically equipping survival retreats. In addition to hardcopy newsletters, in the s survivalists established their first online presence with BBS   and Usenet forums dedicated to survivalism and survival retreats. Clayton's book, coinciding with a renewed arms race between the United States and Soviet Union , marked a shift in emphasis in preparations made by survivalists away from economic collapse, famine, and energy shortages—which were concerns in the s—to nuclear war.
In the early s, science fiction writer Jerry Pournelle was an editor and columnist for Survive , a survivalist magazine, and was influential in the survivalist movement. Interest in the movement picked up during the Clinton administration due in part to the debate surrounding the Federal Assault Weapons Ban and the ban's subsequent passage in The interest peaked again in triggered by fears of the Y2K computer bug.
Before extensive efforts were made to rewrite computer programming code to mitigate the effects, some writers such as Gary North , Ed Yourdon , James Howard Kunstler ,  and investments' advisor Ed Yardeni anticipated widespread power outages, food and gasoline shortages, and other emergencies. North and others raised the alarm because they thought Y2K code fixes were not being made quickly enough. While a range of authors responded to this wave of concern, two of the most survival-focused texts to emerge were Boston on Y2K by Kenneth W.
Another wave of survivalism began after the September 11, , attacks and subsequent bombings in Bali , Madrid , and London. This resurgence of interest in survivalism appears to be as strong as the s era focus on the topic. The fear of war, avian influenza , energy shortages, environmental disasters , and global climate change , coupled with economic uncertainty and the apparent vulnerability of humanity after the Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami and Hurricane Katrina , have increased interest in survivalism topics.
Many books were published in the wake of the Great Recession from and later offering survival advice for various potential disasters, ranging from an energy shortage and crash to nuclear or biological terrorism. In addition to the s-era books, blogs and Internet forums are popular ways of disseminating survivalism information. Online survival websites and blogs discuss survival vehicles, survival retreats, emerging threats, and list survivalist groups. Economic troubles emerging from the credit collapse triggered by the US subprime mortgage lending crisis and global grain shortages     have prompted a wider cross-section of the populace to prepare.
The advent of H1N1 Swine Flu in piqued interest in survivalism, significantly boosting sales of preparedness books and making survivalism more mainstream. These developments led Gerald Celente , founder of the Trends Research Institute, to identify a trend that he calls "neo-survivalism".
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He explained this phenomenon in a radio interview with Jim Puplava on December 18, . When you go back to the last depressing days when we were in a survival mode, the last one the Y2K of course, before the s, what had happened was you only saw this one element of survivalist, you know, the caricature, the guy with the AK heading to the hills with enough ammunition and pork and beans to ride out the storm.
This is a very different one from that: you're seeing average people taking smart moves and moving in intelligent directions to prepare for the worst. So survivalism in every way possible.
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Growing your own, self-sustaining, doing as much as you can to make it as best as you can on your own and it can happen in urban area, sub-urban area or the ex-urbans. And it also means becoming more and more tightly committed to your neighbors, your neighborhood, working together and understanding that we're all in this together and that when we help each other out that's going to be the best way forward. This last aspect is highlighted in The Trends Research Journal : "Communal spirit intelligently deployed is the core value of Neo-Survivalism". A number of popular movies and television shows [ definition needed ] , such as the National Geographic Channel 's Doomsday Preppers , have also emerged recently [ when?
Following the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting the "prepper" community worried they would face public scrutiny after it was revealed the mass murderer's mother was a survivalist. Survivalism is approached by its adherents in different ways, depending on their circumstances, mindsets, and particular concerns for the future. While survivalists accept the long-term viability of Western civilization, they learn principles and techniques needed for surviving life-threatening situations that can occur at any time and place. They prepare for such calamities that could result in physical harm or requiring immediate attention or defense from threats.
These disasters could be biotic or abiotic. Survivalists combat disasters by attempting to prevent and mitigate damage caused by these factors. This group stresses being able to stay alive for indefinite periods in life-threatening wilderness scenarios, including plane crashes, shipwrecks, and being lost in the woods. Concerns are: thirst, hunger, climate, terrain, health, stress, and fear. The rule states that a human can survive: 3 minutes without air, 3 hours without shelter, 3 days without water, 3 weeks without food. This group focuses on surviving brief encounters of violent activity, including personal protection and its legal ramifications, danger awareness, John Boyd 's cycle also known as the OODA loop —observe, orient, decide and act , martial arts, self-defense tactics and tools both lethal and non-lethal.
These survivalist tactics are often firearm-oriented, in order to ensure a method of defense against attackers or home invasion. This group consists of people who live in tornado, hurricane, flood, wildfire, earthquake or heavy snowfall-prone areas and want to be prepared for possible emergencies. While assuming the long-term continuity of society, some may have invested in a custom-built shelter, food, water, medicine, and enough supplies to get by until contact with the rest of the world resumes following a natural emergency.
This group is concerned with weather cycles of 2—10 years, which have happened historically and can cause crop failures. This group considers an end to society as it exists today under possible scenarios including global warming , global cooling , environmental degradation ,  warming or cooling of gulf stream waters, or a period of severely cold winters caused by a supervolcano , an asteroid strike , or large-scale nuclear proliferation. This group is concerned with the spread of fatal diseases, biological agents, and nerve gases, including swine flu , E.
Monetary disaster investors believe the Federal Reserve system is fundamentally flawed. Newsletters suggest hard assets of gold and silver bullion, coins, and other precious-metal-oriented investments such as mining shares. Survivalists prepare for paper money to become worthless through hyperinflation.
As of late this is a popular scenario. These individuals study End Times prophecy and believe that one of various scenarios might occur in their lifetime. While some Christians and even people of other religions believe that the Rapture will follow a period of Tribulation , others believe that the Rapture is imminent and will precede the Tribulation "Pre-Trib Rapture  ".
There is a wide range of beliefs and attitudes in this group. They run the gamut from pacifist to armed camp, and from having no food stockpiles leaving their sustenance up to God's providence to storing decades' worth of food. This group believes that peak oil is a near term threat to Western civilization,  and take appropriate measures,  usually involving relocation to an agriculturally self-sufficient survival retreat.
Followers of James Wesley Rawles  often prepare for multiple scenarios with fortified and well-equipped rural survival retreats. This group has a primary concern with maintaining some form of legal system and social cohesion after a breakdown in the technical infrastructure of society. Common preparations include the creation of a clandestine or defensible retreat, haven, or bug out location BOL in addition to the stockpiling of non-perishable food, water, water-purification equipment, clothing, seed, firewood, defensive or hunting weapons, ammunition, agricultural equipment , and medical supplies.
Some survivalists do not make such extensive preparations, and simply incorporate a " Be Prepared " outlook into their everyday life.